After the seminal Nature paper by O'Regan and Grätzel in 1991, the R&D on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) has continuously grown into a massive research field. The past few years, the DSSC technology has been shadowed by the Perovskite technoloy. However, from 2016, there has been an upcoming trend for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC), driven by exploiting unique features of the DSSC technology, mainly esthetic properties and great functionality at low-light conditions, i.e. IoT-conditions. From a technical viewpoint, this is illustrated by a new generation DSSC materials, such as Cu-based electrolytes in combination with organic dyes, and so-called Zombie-cells. All of this opens for a new era of DSSC research and industrialization, which was confirmed at the Dyenamo conferences in Uppsala October 2017 and 2019.
For in-depth information on the basics of the DSSC technology, we refer to the review "Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells" from the founders of Dyenamo (Hagfeldt et al., Chem. Rev. 110, (2010), 6595-6663.).